When gum disease sets in, cleaning the surface of the gums is not enough. To stop the further spread of gum disease, a further deep cleaning needs to be conducted.
When plaque and tartar begin building up on teeth, it can start to attack the gums as well. This can cause the gums to start to separate from the teeth. Little pockets will begin to form in those spaces, which creates a home for bacteria to move in to and start causing more damage. At that point, brushing and flossing will not be enough to kill the bacteria and stop gum disease.
A procedure called scaling & root planing is required to clean the area properly. During this procedure, the roots of the teeth need to be scaled, which means to remove all bacteria from the pockets completely. Due to the irregular shape of the roots of the teeth, bacteria can still continue to be trapped in the area.
Root planing is then used to smooth down the roots of the teeth. Tiny bumps and irregularities in the roots can cause gum disease to continue, so eliminating them helps to create a bacteria free area.
A deep cleaning using scaling and root planing is essential in cleaning out the unwanted bacteria trapped between the gums and teeth. Failure to fight back against gum disease can lead to more bacteria spreading and a bevy of further issues in the mouth. When under constant attack from gum disease, the gums can weaken to the point that they can no longer hold teeth in place, which can lead to teeth falling out or needing to be extracted.